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Hotter oceans spawn super cyclones

Extreme temperatures in the bay of Bengal have triggered the storm systems. The higher temperature might be whetting super cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. It is a known fact that cyclones gain their energy from the moisture and heat generated from ocean surfaces. The storm that is barrelling towards West Bengal is one of the strongest cyclones named Amphan. Since the 1999 super cyclone in Odisha, this has been the strongest one. This devastating news has hit almost every news channel by storm including Punjab News in Punjabi.

Warmer water is responsible for the genesis of cyclones

Where there is warm water near the equator, tropical cyclones formed there only. In order to form a cyclone, the level of warm and moist air rises over the ocean slightly upwards from the surface. When the air moves upwards the ocean surface, the air near the surface is comparatively less. Eventually, as warm air rises, it causes lower air pressure. The surrounding air with high-pressure areas pushes in low air pressure areas. The new air which comes in contact with warmer air becomes moist and warm that rises and cools the water in the air. This creates clouds. The system of wind, water, spins and grows, which is fed by water evaporation and ocean’s heat from the ocean surface. An eye forms in the centre when the storm system rotates faster and faster. With very low pressure, it is clear and calm in the eye. On the other hand, higher pressure air flows down the eye.

This storm becomes a tropical storm when the winds in the rotating system reach 63 Km per hour. And when wind reaches 119 Km per Hour, it is called a tropical cyclone. These cyclones weaken when they hit the sand as then they are no longer fed by the ocean’s heat from warm waters. Though before dying out completely, they cause a lot of wind damage and dump centimetres of rain as it moves far inland.

Cyclone Categories

Depending on the strength of the wind produced cyclones are divided into five major categories. There are numerous classification scales but one that may be familiar with is SSHS(Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale). These classifications mentioned below are used in measuring the potential flooding and damage a cyclone can cause upon landfall.

Category Wind Speed (mph) Damage at Landfall Storm Surge(feet)
1 74-95 Minimal 4-5
2 96-110 Moderate 6-8
3 111-130 Extensive 9-12
4 131-155 Extreme 13-18
5 >155 Catastrophic 19+

Names of cyclones in various regions of the world

When the speed of a cyclone is more than 34 nautical miles for every hour then it gets important to give it an exceptional name. If the speed reaches or crosses 74 mph, it is then characterized into a typhoon, cyclone or hurricane. Most names given in the North-Western Pacific district are not human names. Even though a few names have been kept in the names of people, the majority of the names have been given based on Flowers, creatures, animals, trees and food things, and so on.

Since 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission and the World Meteorological Weather Organization began to name cyclonic storms for the Asia Pacific.  Such as the cyclones rising in the north Indian Ocean are required to be named by the Indian Meteorological Department.

Since 2014, about eight countries have started the process of giving names to cyclonic storms in the Indian Ocean region, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Oman, Thailand, Maldives, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. On the initiative of India, all other countries contributed to the set of names which were assigned subsequently based on the first letter of each country. The prenamed is given to the cyclone when it reaches into an area of these eight countries. The countries have suggested eight names each, including Fani, Vayu, Hikaa, Kyarr, Maha, Bulbul, Pawan, and Amphan.

The naming culture not only recognizes the threat of cyclones but compels the country to take preemptive measures to curb and mitigate the damage. In November 2017, the cyclone Okhi was named by Bangladesh which means eye in Bengali language. However, the recent cyclone in Bangladesh was named Foni, which means the hood of a snake. Till today, 64 names have been given to the cyclones in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea.

Four cyclones were there in 2004 which were named as Pyaar, Baj, Hibru, and Fire, respectively. In 2005, there were three cyclones named Mala, Fanoos, and Mukda. Likewise, in 2015, there were four and following in 2016 and 2017 only one Okhi named by Bangladesh. In June 2019, a cyclone hit the Gujarat coast which was named Vayu and the concerned authorities took precautionary measures for it. The name was given by India and also decided by these eight countries.

The Current Cyclone Got its Name from Thailand

The current cyclone which hit the Bay of Bengal, some parts of Odisha and Bengal, drastically is named Amphan which is given by Thailand. Similarly, the names of cyclones that got active in 2019 and 2020 have already been decided in advance. When these storms will pass, the new names will be given again in a meeting.

Why more cyclones in the Eastern coast of India?

Due to wind patterns that keep the ocean cooler on the Western side, it is responsible for more cyclones in the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea. Many of these move Oman instead of hitting the Indian Ocean even among those along the western coast. Since eastern sides have flatter topography as compared to the western side, therefore, storms formed on the eastern sides are more intense.

Lockdown Impact

Another researcher said the raised sea temperatures this year could, partially, be clarified by the lockdown. Diminished particulate issue discharges during the lockdown meant fewer aerosols, for example, black carbon, that are known to reflect daylight and warmth away from the surface.

According to the national news published in Punjab News in Punjabi, expanded particulate pollution from the Indo-Gangetic fields is shipped towards the Bay of Bengal and this likewise impacts the development of clouds over the ocean, said V. Vinoj, Assistant Professor, School of Earth, Ocean and Climate Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology in Bhubaneswar.

Author Bio:

Vaibhav Sharma is a digital marketing expert by day and writer by night. He is a project manager at True Scoop News who specializes in blogging, article and copywriting. He loves to write technology related articles, entertainment blogs, latest national news in English and Punjabi and tutorials as long as there is a bit of information technology.

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