The customer development model is a vital framework for any startup looking to build and launch a successful product. Developed by entrepreneur Steve Blank in the mid-2000s, this methodology emphasizes the importance of customer interaction and feedback throughout the product development process.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the key concepts and steps of the customer development model. We will also discuss how startups can leverage this framework to validate their ideas, find product-market fit, and ultimately build a sustainable business.

What is the Customer Development Model?

The customer development model proposes that startups should follow a specific four-step framework rather than the traditional product development process. The four steps are:


This initial phase focuses on understanding the problem you are trying to solve and identifying the target customer segment. Key activities include conducting customer interviews, developing personas, and outlining the customer’s workflow.


Here startups test whether their proposed solution and product concepts solve the customer’s problem. This involves creating MVPs (minimum viable products) and eliciting customer feedback through means like landing pages.

Customer Creation

After demonstrating initial product-market fit, startups now focus on building end-user demand and scaling up customer acquisition. Tactics include SEM, content marketing, sales partnerships, and improving conversion rates.

Company Building

With sufficient traction and repeat customers, startups transition into formal company building by focusing on organizational infrastructure and systems needed for further growth.

A key difference from traditional product development is the focus on early customer engagement rather than design specifications. The goal is to integrate customer feedback as early as possible to avoid wasting time on features and products customers don’t want.

Why Follow the Customer Development Model?

There are several compelling reasons why startups should follow the customer development framework:

  • Mitigates risk – Early customer engagement helps validate assumptions and prevent wasting resources on ideas that won’t gain traction.
  • Faster to market – Launching MVPs and iterating based on feedback is faster than prolonged design phases.
  • Optimizes product-market fit – Direct customer feedback enables startups to build what users want.
  • Informed scaling – Companies only scale after demonstrating product-market fit, preventing premature scaling.
  • Promotes agility – The process embraces iteration and using customer insights to rapidly evolve the product.

Overall, the customer development model helps startups launch products users want sooner and with less wasted resources. This leads to higher customer satisfaction, retention, and faster growth.

Implementing the Customer Development Process

Putting the customer development model into practice requires focus and discipline. Here are some tips for implementing the framework successfully:

  • Document assumptions – Explicitly outline all assumptions about the customer problem, target segments, personas, product features, etc. so they can be tested.
  • Get customer-obsessed – Make customer perspectives and feedback an integral part of daily decisions and processes.
  • Conduct discovery research – Leverage methods like surveys, interviews, and ethnographic research to gain customer insights. Observe how customers behave.
  • Build MVPs – Use low-fidelity prototypes and landing pages to start garnering user feedback with minimal wasted effort.
  • Measure and learn – Analyze qualitative and quantitative metrics to validate assumptions. Learn quickly and adjust strategies accordingly.
  • Iterate ruthlessly – Be prepared to make drastic changes to product concepts and business model hypotheses based on customer feedback.
  • Develop organizational agility – Create a startup culture, processes, and team that can nimbly respond to customer learnings and evolving market conditions.

Tips for Optimizing the Four Steps

Let’s explore some proven tactics for executing each of the four customer development steps:

Discovery Phase

  • Develop buyer and user personas – Detailed profiles of key customer segments to guide product decisions.
  • Map customer workflow – Outline how users accomplish tasks today without your solution.
  • Identify points of friction – Note steps in the workflow that are inefficient, frustrating, or costly. These are opportunities.
  • Conduct problem interviews – Ask open-ended questions to understand problems, without mentioning your solution.

Validation Phase

  • Create MVPs – Simple prototypes focused on testing assumptions and solving one main problem.
  • Set up landing pages – Create marketing sites to describe product benefits and collect buyer information.
  • Run Google/Facebook Ads – Drive targeted traffic to landing pages to assess interest.
  • Survey customers – Ask for feedback on messaging, pricing, features, etc. via online surveys.

Customer Creation Phase

  • Develop repeatable sales process – Document successful tactics for converting and retaining customers.
  • Build referral programs – Reward customers for referring peers to accelerate organic acquisition.
  • Nurture leads – Establish ongoing touchpoints post sign-up via email, content, and special offers.
  • Onboard customers – Set up systems to successfully transition customers from purchase to first use.

Company Building Phase

  • Scale up infrastructure – Expand capabilities and resources to support increased customers and operations.
  • Develop management team – Assign leadership roles as needed: VP Sales, VP Marketing, Chief Product Officer, etc.
  • Refine positioning – Evolve messaging and positioning to resonate with mainstream customers, not just early adopters.
  • Raise funding – With sufficient traction, pursue venture capital or other funding to fuel growth.

Optimizing the Model for Business-to-Business (B2B) Startups

The customer development framework is very applicable to B2B companies. However, B2B startups need to adapt the process given longer sales cycles and more complex customer relationships. Here are some modifications for B2B scenarios:

  • Map buyer’s journey – Understand all key roles and influencers involved in B2B purchasing decisions.
  • Conduct group customer interviews – Talk with all roles involved in using the product.
  • Make process prototypes – Demonstrate how your solution integrates with customer workflows.
  • Find early internal champions – Partner with friendly customers who will pilot your product and advocate use.
  • Offer free trials – Provide full access to the product for a limited time to secure buy-in.
  • Get implementation and onboarding right – Invest significant resources to ensure successful rollout and adoption.

Metrics to Track

To test assumptions and measure success, startups need to determine what metrics to track at each stage:


  • Number of customer interviews
  • Key learnings from interviews
  • Conversion rate on landing pages


  • The click-through rate on ads and landing pages
  • Cost per lead
  • Percentage of users that indicate intent to purchase

Customer Creation

  • Customer acquisition cost
  • The lifetime value of a customer
  • Churn/retention rate
  • Net Promoter Score

Company Building

  • Month-over-month revenue growth
  • Gross margin
  • Customer satisfaction (CSAT) score

Tracking metrics gives startups an objective view of whether their strategies are working. The data enables them to course correct and improve execution.

Software to Support Implementation

Executing the customer development model does not require complex software. Many startups manage the process using simple tools:

  • Google Docs – For documenting assumptions and interview findings
  • Trello – Kanban boards to manage customer research and product tasks
  • MailChimp – Email marketing to engage prospects
  • Google Analytics – Track website conversion metrics
  • Qualtrics – Administer customer surveys
  • Zapier – Connect marketing, sales, and support tools

As startups grow, they may invest in more robust CRM, marketing automation, and project management systems. The priority is picking tools that enhance agility.


The customer development model provides a proven framework for startups to iteratively build products users want. By emphasizing early customer engagement over applications of technology or business plans, startups are more likely to achieve product-market fit.

While intensive customer research requires diligence, it reduces long-term risk and results in sustainable growth. Savvy startups recognize customer feedback as their most valuable asset. They build customer-centric organizations that can nimbly respond to user needs.

Adopting the customer development methodology positions startups to thrive in competitive markets. Companies that embrace this approach launch better products faster, attract more loyal users, and ultimately become category leaders.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the main benefits of the customer development model?

The customer development model helps startups mitigate risk, accelerate time to market, optimize product-market fit, inform smarter scaling decisions, and promote organizational agility.

How is customer development different than traditional product development?

Customer development emphasizes early customer engagement, rapid prototyping, and iteration rather than detailed specification documents and long technology development cycles.

What kind of startups is customer development best suited for?

Customer development can benefit all startups across consumer, enterprise, regulated industries, etc. Software and hardware companies especially benefit from rapidly incorporating user feedback.

What metrics should be tracked at each phase?

Key metrics include a number of interviews, landing page conversions, cost per lead, customer acquisition costs, lifetime value, churn rate, month-over-month revenue growth, and customer satisfaction.

How much time should be spent in each phase?

The timeframe depends on the complexity of the product and customer relationships. B2B startups often require more time in the customer creation phase. The key is allocating enough iterations in each phase to validate assumptions