The BNP test is one of the tests indicated to check and evaluate the performance of the heart as well as related diseases. So what is a BNP test, and when is it ordered?
1. What is the BNP test?
1.1. What is BNP?
BNP stands for Brain Natriuretic Peptide or B-type Natriuretic Peptide, first discovered in 1988. BNP is one of the most commonly used forms of sodium peptide, alongside ANP and CNP.
BNP is the form of Peptide present in the serum
All peptides are collectively known as diuretic peptides or cardiovascular endocrine peptides, they have different release origins. The ANP released from the atrium is mainly produced by the left ventricle of the heart (the main pumping chamber of the heart). BNP levels are tied to blood volume and the pressure the heart has to contract to carry blood throughout the body, while CNP is mainly from endothelial cells.
Although there are different precursors, the three types of peptides have similar distribution and regulation in the organization.
BNP is present in the brain and left ventricle of the heart, with a precursor of 108 divided amino acids, which contains a ring-shaped structure made up of 17 amino acids. BNP exists in plasma in relatively small amounts, but when patients have ventricular hypertrophy or congestive heart failure, these levels will be abnormally high.
PrePro – BNP has 134 amino acids, when in the Pro – BNP form, amino acids are removed. Pro – BNP consists of 2 parts, NT – ProBNP and BNP, which break down into active BNP and inactive NT-proBNP.
1.2. What is the BNP test ?
The BNP test stands for B-type Natriuretic Peptide, which means a quantitative test of the BNP hormone present in human blood. Since BNP is produced by the heart, the measurement of this hormone will indicate the active state of the heart.
BNP test to diagnose heart failure
When the heart is working properly, usually only a small amount of the hormone BNP is secreted and found in the blood. In contrast, the heart has to work too hard, more than usual for a long time, the amount of BNP will secrete more.
Thus, based on the amount of BNP hormone in the blood, the doctor will evaluate the heart health and related diseases such as heart failure. In the treatment of heart failure, a BNP test is also performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, as blood BNP levels drop.
2. When should a BNP test be ordered?
It is necessary to specify a BNP test in the following cases:
Diagnose heart failure or differential diagnosis, to:
Identify or rule out heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea.
Diagnose heart failure in case of difficult ultrasound, with clinical symptoms.
Diagnosis of heart failure in high-risk patients (with hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, …
BNP test to diagnose heart failure
Differential diagnosis of heart failure from other conditions.
Prognosis of heart failure: In patients with heart failure who have been diagnosed with or present with shortness of breath.
– Monitor the progress and effectiveness of heart failure treatment:
Long-term follow-up with patients with chronic heart failure.
Evaluate the risk of recurrence, determine drug toxicity or effectiveness of treatment.
Screening for heart failure, with:
Community screening, especially for high-risk groups such as patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease.
Screen for heart failure risk in patients before and after surgery.
Screening early detects the risk of heart failure in special groups, such as obesity, high blood pressure, kidney failure, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus.
3. Principles of BNP testing
The test for BNP is based on a luminescent quantitative immunization method. BNP is determined by a combination of a BNP-specific antibody and a sample antigen, a Sandwich technique.
The normal concentration of BNP is <125 pg / ml, and the exact number depends on the age.
– The age is less than 55, the concentration of BNP <120 pg / nL.
– Ages 45 – 54: Concentration 49.3 pg / ml.
– Ages 50-75: BNP concentration <160 pg / mL.
– Age over 75: BNP concentration <250 pg / mL.
4. The clinical significance of the BNP test result
Based on the condition, history and other analytical tests, the results of the BNP test will have different diagnostic implications.
– Myocardial anemia causes strain of heart muscle cells, leading to disorders of systolic function, left ventricular diastole. These are all important agents of serum BNP release.
BNP index in patients with myocardial infarction
– After myocardial infarction, the concentration of BNP increases, depending on the size of the infarction. Specifically:
Small infarction, BNP concentration only 1 phase maximum at 20 hours after symptom onset.
The infarct was large, with BNP concentrations reaching a maximum on day 5 after onset of symptoms.
If the BNP level persists at high levels for 1-2 months after myocardial infarction, this may be due to heart failure.
– BNP concentration helps assess heart function impairment and sudden death prognosis in patients with heart failure. Because BNP is excreted mainly from the ventricles, it is responsible for increasing ventricular pressure and myocardial wall tension.
In patients with asymptomatic heart failure, BNP has a high prognostic value that assesses the stage of the disease.
Normal BNP values provide the ability to predict no heart failure.
BNP levels are four times higher than normal for a higher chance of cardiovascular disease.
BNP concentration may increase in other diseases such as heart valve disease, myocardium, anemia, atrial arrhythmia, severe septic shock, stroke due to cerebral infarction …
5. Where is the BNP test?
BNP testing is currently being done in a number of major testing centers and hospitals nationwide. Including the medical testing center of MEDLATEC general hospital in Hanoi, which is a prestigious address trusted by many patients as well as doctors nationwide.
With over 23 years of experience, MEDLATEC General Hospital and a team of experienced doctors are equipped with a synchronous system of modern machines, creating a reputation both at home and abroad.
In particular, MEDLATEC’s laboratory meets ISO 15189: 2012 standards, ensuring accurate and reliable test results.
Advantages of choosing BNP testing services at MEDLATEC General Hospital:
– Make a quick and convenient appointment appointment.
– Procedures and examination process are fast, professional, save time.
– The list of examination packages is diversified, complete and detailed.
– Access to professional medical services with a team of qualified and experienced specialists.
System of medical equipment, modern, clean and beautiful facilities.
– Reasonable cost level, consistent with people’s general income.
You can also choose a BNP test at home, convenient, time-saving and more proactive.